An Argument for End-To-End Encryption

Messaging apps have a become a daily part of, their use is widespread globally and is completely integrated into the average person’s every-day form of communication. As of December 2017, one of the popular messaging apps, ‘What’s App’ announced that it had over 1.5 billion monthly active users.1
Most messaging apps use encryption (such as protocols like SSL) to protect their users from those who try to get unauthorised access over the Internet, but owners of these apps have access to the contents of their user’s messages unless end-to-end encryption is used. Some messaging apps such as ‘What’s App’ already have end-to-end encryption as a feature included by default and there is a growing movement towards following their lead by making this a required standard on all messaging apps. The push for data protection and privacy is a needed due to the rise of identity theft and blackmail however there a those who argue against end-to-end encryption citing that it hinders law enforcement and that it kills lesser messaging apps who don’t have the means to conform to this proposed standard. This essay examines the reasons that end-to-end encryption must be built into and enabled by default on all messaging apps and considers the various arguments against its inclusion.

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Device6 and The Stanley Parable Analysis

Device6 is an interactive novel on iOS devices. It won Excellence in Audio, and was a finalist for Excellence in Narrative, Excellence in Visual Arts, and Seumas McNally Grand Prize. It was also an honourable mention for the Excellence in Design and Nuovo Award. The player plays as Anne who is suffering from amnesia. Anne wakes up on an island brimming with 60s aesthetics accompanied by an atmospheric jazz score. The player has to find out the truth behind Anne’s amnesia, the island and the reason for everything through and thrilling and interesting narrative.

The Stanley Parable is a first person exploration, PC game. It was originally a Half-Life 2 Mod, that became widely successful which allowed the developers to release a paid remake of it. The Stanley Parable won the Audience Award in the Independent Games Festival. It was a finalist in Excellence in Audio, Excellence in Narrative and Seumas McNally Grand Prize. The game has a limited amount of interaction where the player can perform actions in certain parts of the environment such as pressing buttons or opening doors. The narrative of the game is presented to the player via the voice of the Narrator. He explains that the protagonist Stanley who the player is controlling, works in an office building whose job is push buttons when prompted on a screen without question. One day no prompts come and Stanley not sure what’s going on or what to do starts to explore the building and finds that everybody is missing. It is then that the player is presented with the first choice which spirals rapidly into an exploration of the illusion of choice and unquestioning nature of players in video games.

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What is Procedural Rhetoric and are the criticisms made against it by Miguel Sicart valid?

According to Sicart, as written in his piece “Against Procedurality”:

Proceduralism often disregards the importance of play and players as activities that have creative, performative properties. In this sense, the meaning of a game, of any game, lies in its rules…In the proceduralist tradition, play is not central to understanding the meanings created by (playing) games, since it is the rules that create those meanings. (Against Procedurality, 2011, para. 23)

and that:

In essence, procedural rhetoric argues that it is in the formal properties of the rules where the meaning of a game can be found. And what players do is actively complete the meaning suggested and guided by the rules. For proceduralists, which are after all a class of formalists, the game is the rules, both in terms of its ontological definition (the what in what is a game), and in its function as an object that creates meaning in the contexts in which specific users use it. (Against Procedurality, 2011, para. 22)

This essay will first properly define Procedural Rhetoric and how it is related to Proceduralism in order to bring a groundwork understanding to what it is the Sicart is criticising. Sicart’s views will be laid out in a manner in which they will be taken apart, looked at and considered on whether these criticisms are actually valid complaints. First will be Sicart’s interpretation of procedural rhetoric and whether his criticism against his interpretation is valid to apply to what Bogost really meant. Sicart claims that procedural rhetoric ignores the player yet Bogost outlines a concept called procedural enthymeme which acknowledges the relationship between player and procedure. Sicart claims that Bogost focuses too much on the formal characteristics of the game, and not enough on other other important components such as aesthetics, narrative, and so on. Sicart’s interpretation of procedural rhetoric against his own idea of abusive game design which when looked into are pretty much the same thing and how Sicart believes that procedurality leads to the embedding of agendas and views into the games which are then forced onto the unsuspecting players.

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Wide Asleep – Research Essay

So this is a research essay for a game-for-change game, I had to design during my Game Design Course. I decided upon a sleeping app that added gamelike elements to promote better sleeping habits and alert users of potential health risks associated with poor sleep. This was done with a good friend who designed all the images. I don’t know if I still have all the files but it looked really good in my opinion.

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Narrative Exploration :: Silent Hill 3


The psychological horror Silent Hill 3 was developed by Team Silent and published by Konami in 2003. The game’s story follows the plot of the first Silent Hill game. Silent Hill 3 uses the Voyage and Return story archetype as written in “The Seven Basic Plots” by Christopher Booker along with occult references with symbolism of birth and memories of the protagonist’s past life to construct a compelling narrative.

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Formal Properties of a Video Game – Silent Hill 2

One of the first essays I had to do for my Game Design course. I think I got a fairly good mark with decent comments. I’m pretty sure one of the criticisms for this was that it read more like a review at the beginning rather than an exploration of the game’s mechanics. Anyways enjoy 🙂

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